Welcome to Electromagnetics

Description: This course should provide the PhD candidates in the Wireless program the necessary background on the physical aspects of radiowave communication. The motivation follows the well-known fact that students in this program come from various backgrounds, often specialized in communication protocols and information theory, but lacking the necessary physical insight into electromagnetic fields, antennas and radiowave propagation. For the rest of the participants, this course should give a recapitulation of the previously acquired knowledge and extending it to meet the needs of their dissertation, as many of them will need to design an antenna and/or carry out electromagnetic simulations in their projects.

The course has been run 4x before, every two years:

In the 2011 run, the course has been attended by 8 participants, with above average rating and evaluating the course content as relevant.
In 2013 there were 10 participants: the rating and content evaluation was, with one exception, above average.
In 2015 there were 10 participants: the overall rating was strongly above average and content relevance was slightly above average.
In 2017 there were 12 participants. The overall rating was very good and content relevance evaluated as excellent.
In the next run, slightly less than 10 participants are expected to join, if the course is held already in spring.


Basic BSc/MSc course in electromagnetics

Vector calculus on MSc level

Learning objectives:

Electromagnetic theory (OF):

Fundamentals of electromagnetics for wireless communication; Maxwell's equations; material properties; boundary conditions; concepts of perfect electric and magnetic conductors; time-harmonic fields; superposition principle; vector potentials; coordinate systems; dyadic Green’s functions; power and energy; Poynting's theorem; wave equation and its solutions; wave propagation; standing waves; polarization; reflection and transmission; radiation; duality theorem; uniqueness theorem; image theory; reciprocity theorem; surface equivalence theorem; Huygens' principle; induction theorem.

Numerical methods (OF):

Most common numerical methods in electromagnetics and their classification; introduction to the method of moments; Hallén’s and Pocklington’s equations; thin-wire dipole; introduction to the FDTD method; stability; dispersion; magic time step; boundary conditions; absorbing boundary conditions; near to far field transformation; characteristic problems; examples of FDTD software; AFC (in-house APMS FDTD Code); CST Microwave Studio; comparison between FDTD and FIT methods; advantages and disadvantages of FDTD and MoM; electromagnetic wave absorption in human tissues; specific absorption rate; homogeneous and heterogeneous human phantoms.

Teaching methods:

Total 12 hours of lectures divided into either 2 days (3 hrs morning + 3 hrs afternoon, each day) or 4 days (3 hrs in the morning each day), subject to availability of rooms and course schedule.
1 mini-project of approx. 1 month duration supervised and evaluated by the lecturer.
Criteria for assessment:

Attendance of the lectures + evaluation of the mini-project.

Key literature:

Not necessary for passing the course, but for further reading:

[1] C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Wiley 1989
[2] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 2nd ed., Wiley 1997

[3] R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, IEEE Press 1961 (2001).

[4] A. Taflove, S. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Artech House 1995 (2000, 2005).

[5] J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, Wiley 1993 (2002, 2014).

[6] R. F. Harrington, Field Computation by Moment Methods, Wiley 1968 (1993).

Organizer: Ondrej Franek

Lecturers: Ondrej Franek (OF)


Time: March 11th to 14th, 2019



Number of seats: 20

Deadline: February 25th, 2019

Important information concerning PhD courses: We have over some time experienced problems with no-show for both project and general courses. It has now reached a point where we are forced to take action. Therefore, the Doctoral School has decided to introduce a no-show fee of DKK 5,000 for each course where the student does not show up. Cancellations are accepted no later than 2 weeks before start of the course. Registered illness is of course an acceptable reason for not showing up on those days. Furthermore, all courses open for registration approximately three months before start. This can hopefully also provide new students a chance to register for courses during the year. We look forward to your registrations.